Born in Blood and Fire

1. Why was the victory of the Sandinistas in Nicaragua during the late 1970s possible?

a. Cuba assisted them.

b. A widespread rebellion began when the Somozas killed a prominent conservative journalist.

c. The United States withdrew military aid to Somoza’s National Guard.

d. They joined forces with Guatemala, El Salvador, and other Central American nations.

2. Which of the following was a direct consequence of the breakup of the Soviet Union?

a. It left the United States as the world champion of capitalism and only superpower in the world of a new line of thought.

b. Russia became the world champion of communism.

c. It promoted socialism in Latin America.

d. It created a rebellion against the Russian Royalty.

3. Which statement best describes the situation in Chile during the 1990s?

a. Chile enjoyed low inflation, good credit, steady growth, and diversified exports.

b. Chile defaulted in its foreign debt.

c. Chile had never had a dictator in power.

d. Chile suffered from high inflation and bad credit.

4. Which of the following was a direct consequence of neoliberalism?

a. low unemployment rates

b. high unemployment rates

c. dictatorships

d. high tariffs

5. Which of the following concepts did the “new left” reject?

a. the free market

b. social distribution

c. equality

d. democracy

6. Which of the following statements best describes Fernando Henrique Cardoso?

a. a Marxist sociology professor who ruled Brazil with an iron fist

b. a Marxist sociology professor who inspired a generation of social scientists

Which leader of the Argentine junta argued that the March 1976 coup was necessary because it marked “the final closing of a historical cycle and the opening of a new one whose fundamental characteristic will be manifested by the reorganization of the nation?”


b. Orlando Agosti

What was the event in 1978 that gave the junta “political space” to continue with “El Proceso” until the end of the decade?

d. A historical trade deal that was signed with China, which gave Argentine farmers and cattle ranchers favorable terms to export their products to China.

9. With what episode were British military leaders still upset about, which compelled them to favor a strong reaction to the Argentine invasion of the Falkland Islands?

a. German submarine aggression during World War I.

c. The Suez Canal crisis of 1956

Which member of Margaret Thatcher’s government resigned immediately in the aftermath of the Argentine invasion of the Malvinas?

a. Foreign Secretary Lord Carrington

What was the message of the secret cable sent by Secretary of State Alexander Haig to Lord Carrington just before the Argentine invasion of the Malvinas?

a. “The Argentines are too strong, I would encourage the Prime Minister to begin negotiations with them immediately.”

During his visit to Buenos Aires, Secretary of State Haig met with General Leopoldo Galtieri and which other Argentine official?

a. Finance Minister José Martínez de Hoz

What was the pivotal event in the war which totally ended any further possible attempts of negotiating an end to the crisis?

a. The Argentine submarine Santa Fe was sunk and several sailors were taken as prisoners of war.

Which of the following democratic events did not occur in South America following the Falklands/Malvinas War?

a. Brazil returned to democracy in 1985