What are the most convincing observations Galileo reports

What are the most convincing observations Galileo reports in “The Starry Messenger” that support the Copernican theory that the earth moves around the sun? What did Galileo’s later discovery of the phases of Venus contribute to discussions of the Copernican theory?

A major component of Galileo’s new contributions to science in the 17th century was his appreciation that mathematics was the key to understanding Nature. Why was this view “revolutionary” in Galileo’s day, and what evidence did he have to support the idea that mathematics is the “language” of Nature? How did mathematics serve

Galileo in supporting the Copernican theory?What does Galileo say in his “Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina” and the “Assayer” about the relationship between science and religion? Galileo’s critics argued that the Copernican theory contradicted the Bible, and should therefore be rejected. Why did Galileo believe that science was not in conflict with religion, and indeed, could be taken as a positive rather than a negative factor in theology?

Finally, assume the role of one of Galileo’s Aristotelian critics (not one of his theological critics). Put your arguments against Galileo in your own letter addressed to the Grand Duchess Christina. What objections could you have made at the time to his assertion that the earth moved, and that the cosmos was heliocentric rather than geocentric? What physical arguments would you raise (rather than simply refer to the Bible) to refute Galileo’s support of Copernicus?

What philosophical or metaphysical arguments might you use as part of the Scholastic opposition to the heliocentric theory? You should indent this part of your essay, provide a transitional sentence to this paragraph, and begin with a salutation: “Dear Grand Duchess Christina.” Be sure to write as if you were one of Galileo’s academic (and not on of his religious) opponents.