Assignment 1 LASA 2: PowerPoint Presentation
Utilizing the information you compiled for your literature review paper, prepare a 10-15 minute Power Point presentation on your topic (What are the Causes & Affects of Person Perception?), summarizing the key points and conclusions. Be sure to direct this presentation to an audience in the community. For example, if your paper pertained to a topic in developmental psychology, direct your presentation toward parents, or a parenting center. If your topic pertained to substance abuse, direct it toward a community service agency which may use this information for educating teens or parents about preventing drug use, or current clients about treatments and facilities available. Please state in your presentation the specific audience toward whom your presentation is aimed. Include a reference page in APA format, as well as speaker notes and an audio file with your presentation.
Your slides should provide answers to the following questions:
- What was your topic?
- What question did you hope to answer by completing this literature review paper? Explain the practical implications of the conclusions of the literature review and the audience to which they are directed.
- Given the results of your literature review, what is/are the prevailing argument(s)? In other words, which of those is supported by the existing evidence? Be sure to include full coverage of the arguments, including strengths and weaknesses of each of them, supported by your findings from reviewing the relevant articles.
- Did the researchers consider multicultural factors in their studies? If not, what factors may be involved? What multicultural factors should future studies include?
- What ethical issues are related to your topic and/or discussed in the studies you reviewed?
- How do the conclusions of your literature review relate to the various specialization areas in psychology? Tie them to as many as apply from the following areas: biological, cognitive, developmental, social, personality theory, psychopathology, and applied psychology.
- How can the conclusions of your literature review inform the population towards whom your presentation is directed? How can they apply this information to their daily lives? What advice or ‘take home message’ can you provide to your audience based on the research you reviewed?
- What research question could you ask in order to further develop this area of study?
- Why is your research question important and relevant to the current work being done on your topic?
Your presentation should also follow these guidelines:
- It should be approximately 10-15 minutes in length.
- It should be clear, concise, and professional. Writing should be free of spelling and grammatical errors; it should conform to current APA style (including any in-text citations).
- It should include graphs, tables, figures, or images illustrating your ideas.
- There should be a final slide listing references in current APA style.
- The bulk of the text should be placed in the Notes pages of each slide. Keep the amount of text on the slide, itself, to a minimum.
- You should record an audio file of your oral presentation. You should also type the text of the speech you would give while showing these slides to an audience should be typed into the Notes area. If you are unable to use the audio feature, the Notes text will suffice.
- You can refer to the Power Point tips document provided in the Doc Sharing section of the course.
This is my Literature Review paper:
What are the Causes & Affects of Person Perception?
What is person perception and exactly what causes one person to think certain ways about other people? Kendra Cherry, a physiology expert, (2014) states that “In social psychology, the term perception refers to the different mental processes that we use to form impressions of other people”. People are quick to form a perception about someone without even talking to the person. Perceptions are formed based on many different variables such as needs, wants, attitudes, experiences, and beliefs. After the perception has been formed the person is placed into a social category such as wealth, employment, and/or religion. After the person has been categorized into a social group the reaction, positive or negative, process will begin.
These perceptions of others cause us to portray certain behaviors and in the long run this will affect the way we make decisions. (Cherry, K. 2014). It is very important that people keep a positive attitude when interacting with others so that the perceptions of others are not misconstrued or clouded based on fast judgment, social categorization, and human reactions. (Bargh, J. A., Chen, M., & Burrows, L. 1996). The purpose for writing this piece is to find out why people are so quick to cast judgment upon others and also to attempt to change this behavior in myself because I have noticed recently that I am quick to cast judgment upon others based on their appearance or based on tattoos, piercing, or hair color. It is not fair to judge people at all, but to judge one based on their hair color? That is just absurd.
The Many Different Variables
People are quick to form a perception or an opinion about someone without even talking to the person. Perceptions are formed based on many different variables such as wealth, handicap, appearance, clothes, hair (style and/or color), cars, music, color (race), etc. If a person is well dressed one will perceive that specific person is wealthy or takes good care of themselves. Example: If Billy (an older African American male) is seen at a store being very friendly with a known drug dealer, people will perceive that Billy is purchasing drugs from this dealer. This is the way our eyes perceive the situation, and then we are quick to cast our judgment that Billy has a drug problem. “Perceptions are the basis of all actions: decisions, judgments, attitudes, emotions, all the choices made by individuals, organizations, and communities are based on the perceptions of the people involved” (Shaus, R. 2001-2010). All of these variables are also based on situation and experience, meaning that most likely two people in the same situation will have totally different views of the situation.
Rick Shaus (2001-2010), provides this great example “Two people can look at a drug addict with one seeing a criminal and the other seeing a victim of circumstance, a third person could claim to see a case of mental illness and according to different frames of judgment, each or all three could be correct”. This results from people growing up in different life styles and someone who had previously been in a similar situation would be more understanding than someone who had never experienced this before. Someone who had never done drugs is more likely to look down upon people who use drugs or people who have used drugs in their past. People who are raised wealthy have totally different views from those who were raised very poor and these different people would also have different morals and values they were raised to agree with, but it does not take long for one to form an opinion of someone else based on looks, actions, or any other variable that may be involved.
Labeling Social Category
After the perception has been formed about the person and they have been placed into a social category, the reaction process starts. The reaction or labeling can either be negative or positive. “Labeling is based on the self-identity and behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them and it is known to be associated with the concepts of self-fulfilling prophecy and stereotyping” (Macionis, J., and Gerber, L. 2010). An example of self-fulfilling prophecy is; a teacher who thinks a child is slower than the rest of the students may start to cater to that child more than usual or ask the child less difficult questions as compared to the rest of the class. The teacher does this in hopes of the child receiving better grades, but may result in the student getting better grades than any other student in class.
Stereotyping is known as “a fixed, over generalized belief about a particular group or class of people” (Cardwell, M. 1996). “One advantage of a stereotype is that it enables us to respond rapidly to situations because we may have had a similar experience before and one disadvantage is that it makes us ignore differences between individuals; therefore we think things about people that might not be true (i.e. make generalizations)” (Cardwell, M. 1996). Labeling has become so negative recently that it has acquired a bad name; from doctors, teachers, parents, and the public. Stereotype labeling is the worst type of labeling because it causes one to assume things, mostly negative thing, about a certain gender, race, or religion.
Perceptions & Behavior
“Behavioral potentials set the limits within which our dispositions can vary. And vary they do, even for people in the same culture, society, and family” (Hewitt, J. 1970). These perceptions of others cause us to portray certain behaviors and in the long run this will affect the way we make decisions and it will also affect the way our children make decisions. The children are our future and the responsibility is in our hands to teach them right from wrong and I have learned that having a negative attitude affects one’s way of life and happiness, so be as positive as possible in all situations. Staying as positive as possible has many benefits such as: “People who practice positive thinking are more likely to have less stress, are more optimistic believe in themselves and their abilities, believe that the bad things that do happen to them are just small setbacks, and they can easily overcome anything” (Universe Laws. 2014).
People of the same culture have the same beliefs and values as one another. They see eye-to-eye majority of the time and get along because of this. Some cultures reflect negativity towards other cultures and children learn to mimic these actions early in life. Some families discipline their children in a negative manor and this causes the children to grow up confused and being a rebel against anyone with authority. The way we grow up depends on the way we will raise our own children, but people have been known to break the cycle by putting forth effort to see the wrongdoings and correct them. Example: Long ago members of the KKK would walk around performing violent hate crimes and this behavior towards African Americans continued for generations. This can cause people to cast judgment only based on skin color and a negative perception is placed upon this group because of their beliefs and actions. Since this type of hatred can be discontinued we should also discontinue our casting judgment so fast.
To sum it all up one’s perception of others or a situation can be altered by what the eyes see instead of knowing the situation and evaluating it properly. One should never form a false perception of another based on wealth, handicap, appearance, clothes, hair (style and/or color), cars, music, color (race), employment, and/or religion. These perceptions of others cause us to portray certain behaviors and in the long run this will affect the way we make decisions. (Cherry, K. 2014). It is very important that people keep a positive attitude when interacting with others so that the perceptions of others are not misconstrued or clouded based on fast judgment, social categorization, and human reactions.
Labeling has become overwhelming and should only reflect positive labeling instead of negative labeling such as gay, Negro, etc. Stereotype labeling is the worst type of labeling because it causes one to assume things, mostly negative thing, about a certain gender, race, or religion. We all should refrain from doing this because it causes negative reactions all around.
Everyone should try to stay positive about all situations all the time. Universe Laws (2014) states that “People who are happier have their thoughts aligned to what they want, helping manifest desires, improve outcomes, events, and overall happiness in life”. “Start changing how your mind thinks and don’t forget that your thoughts control your emotions which can help control the events in your life, good or bad” (Universe Laws. 2014). Staying positive always has the best results, especially when interacting with others around you on a daily basis.
Bargh, J. A., Chen, M., & Burrows, L. (1996). Automaticity of social behavior: Direct effects of
trait construct and stereotype activation on action. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 71, 230-244.
Cherry, K. (2014). Perception and the Perceptual Process. Retrieved from
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Hewitt, John P. Social Stratification and Deviant Behavior, New York: Random House, 1970.
Macionis, J., and Gerber, L. (2010). Labeling theory: Social constructionism, Social stigma,
Deinstitutionalization, and Labeling. Sociology, 7th edition
Mencken, H. “Research in Organizational Behavior” New York Times, September 8, 2001, p.
A1 (Appendix A).
S. Milgram, Obedience to Authority (New York: Harper & Row, 1974). “Understanding
Behavior in the Milgram Obedience Experiment: The Role of Personality, Situations, and
Their Interactions” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, March 1991, pp. 398–
Shaus, R. (2001-2010). Perceptions. Retrieved from
The Meaning of Perception. (n.d.) Visuals. Retrieved from
Universe Laws. (2014). The Benefits of Staying Positive. Retrieved from