Please answer the following by numbers and with references

  1. Identify the factors used to calculate present and future cash flows.
  2. Distinguish between the annual percentage rate and effective annual rate, and how each is used in financial decision making.
  3. Describe the various types of annuities and how they are calculated.
  4. Understand the relationship between interest rates and bond values.
  5. Review how time to maturity and the coupon rate affect interest rate risk.
  6. Compare and contrast the characteristics of zero coupon bonds, government bonds and corporate bonds.
  7. Describe the difference between real and nominal rates.
  8. Describe how capital gains and dividend growth affect stock prices.
  9. Review how the price-to-earnings ratio and enterprise value ratios are used to compare stock values.
  10. Understand how the NYSE and NASDAQ are organized and operate.