Please go to the website:
list of number 8 to view the Zimbrado Video: learning.
This video extends new information to our discussions in class and to the lecture I provided for the notes concerned with learning.
You can type your answers into the following areas. Please make a file on your computer that you can save this and other assignments into for collection at a later date. I am assuming that you watch this video and complete these questions by NEXT WEDNESDAY. Do not remove the questions. (20pts)
- List the main topics discussed in this video as they occur:
- Please list examples of Independent and dependent variables observed in the video
- Please list examples of intervening variables inferred by those independent and dependent variables to have occurred in the video
- Please list the primary hypotheses discussed in the video concerning the purpose of learning:
- How does the definition of MIND as provided in class relate to the topics discussed in the video and their relationship to the conduct of AND variation in behavior in specific situations?
- Please describe the difference between engagement of learning during the operant (instrumental) and classical conditioning experiments.
- Please describe how the relationship between engagement of learning during the operant (instrumental) and classical conditioning experiments relates to you a student studying for a class.
- Please describe how learning as described by the biological and cognitive perspectives enables change (development) in the organism.
- How do the concepts related to learning read about in text, observed in video, and discussed in lecture address questions of interest to epistemology?
- What are the consequences of learning on the brain and on future execution of behavior by that brain?
Discovering Psychology: Updated Edition
Learning is the eighth program in the Discovering Psychology series. This program discusses the basic principles of how we learn; classical, instrumental, and operant conditioning; and the role that stimuli and consequences play in learned behavior and habits. You’ll explore how renowned researchers Ivan Pavlov, B. F. Skinner, Edward Thorndike, and John B. Watson contributed to what we know about human and animal learning.
In the study of behavior, operant behavior is affected by the environment, and operative conditioning is used to reinforce behavioral change. Behavioral psychologist Dr. Howard Rachlin used operant conditioning to study ways of developing self-control in pigeons.
Dr. Rachlin chose to use pigeons because they can be a particularly impulsive subject. The experiment prompted the pigeons to peck one button once for a small bit of food, and another button 15 times for a larger amount. When presented with a choice between a small but immediate portion of food or a large but delayed portion of food, pigeons chose the small, short-term reward. But when Dr. Rachlinâ€™s team put a pigeon in a box with two buttons that both required 15 pecks for any amount of food at all, the pigeon ultimately chose the button that offered the larger amount.
Eventually, the pigeons learned to choose a larger amount of food by pecking a button 15 times and then waiting four seconds for the food, as opposed to choosing a more immediate but smaller reward. Dr. Rachlinâ€™s experiment illustrated that a pattern of behavior can reinforce the choices that lead to self-control. Parallel human experiences include healthy behavioral changes such as cultivating good exercise habits, quitting smoking, or finding alternative outlets for anger and stress.
Mary Ann Chapman expands on Dr. Rachlinâ€™s findings, and how the principles of operant conditioning can be used to overcome bad habits or addictions