Please answer 3 of the 5 questions presented below. Each answer should be no more than 3 or 4 pages in length, and the total examination should be no more than 10 pages in length. Students should utilize a standard paper format: 1 inch margins, and an 11pt or 12pt font.
- Throughout the Twentieth Century, various scholars have expressed concern about the impact of Bureaucracy on culture and society. What are the basic elements of bureaucratic organization? Briefly outline and describe the various complaints and arguments against bureaucratic organizational structures as they affect larger societies and cultures. Are bureaucracies necessary for the continuation and maintenance of complex, technological civilizations? Explain.
- Some scholars have used the notion of ‘metaphors’ to describe various types of organizations. Briefly outline and describe at least 5 organizational metaphors. In what ways do metaphors help scholars and practitioners understand large organizations? Do you think it makes much difference, in terms of practical organizing, how organizations are conceived and understood? Explain.
- The organizational literature has sometimes wittingly or unwittingly described bureaucrats as being ‘indifferent,’ or as one scholar described them, ‘headless and soulless.’ Do you think this description fits all administrators who work in large bureaucratic organizations? Why do you think this description of bureaucrats has emerged, and why has it persisted? Do the organizational structures in which we work require us to look at the world specific ways? Explain.
- Briefly describe the evolution and development of theories of organization in the late 19th and early 20thcenturies. What have been the larger social and cultural contexts in which these theories of organization have been developed? To what extent have these theories have reflected and to what extent have they shaped our contemporary world?
- What role do organizational theories play in the practice of public administration?