Review the materials under Lecture Notes on social media & disinformation. Discuss the central points (a minimum of 300 words) on the threat of “fake news” & “alternative facts” on the constitutional role of media to inform the public.
George Lakoff and Gil Duran: Trump has turned words into weapons. And he’s winning the linguistic war.
Language (Links to an external site.) works by activating brain structures called â€œframe-circuitsâ€ used to understand experience. They get stronger when we hear the activating language. Enough repetition can make them permanent, changing how we view the world.
Even negating a frame-circuit activates and strengthens it, as when Nixon said â€œI am not a crookâ€ and people thought of him as a crook.
Scientists, marketers, advertisers and salespeople understand these principles. So do Russian and Islamic State hackers. But most reporters and editors clearly donâ€™t. So the press is at a disadvantage (Links to an external site.) when dealing with a super salesman with an instinctive ability to manipulate thought by 1) framing first 2) repeating often, and 3) leading others to repeat his words by getting people to attack him within his own frame. Language can shape the way we think…
Trumpâ€™s tweets are not random, they are strategic (Links to an external site.). There are four types: 1) Pre-emptive framing, to get a framing advantage. 2) Diversion, to divert attention when news could embarrass him. 3) Deflection: Shift the blame to others. And 4) trial balloon â€“ test how much you can get away with. Reporting, and therefore repeating, Trumpâ€™s tweets just gives him more power. There is an alternative. Report the true frames that he is trying to pre-empt. Report the truth that he is trying to divert attention from. Put the blame where it belongs. Bust the trial balloon. Report what the strategies are trying to hide…
Trump is subjecting American democracy to a brutal test. Our survival requires that the press halt its unwitting complicity in his power grab. The press has become complicit with Trump by allowing itself to be used as an amplifier for his falsehoods and frames. When the press gives Trump absolute power to dictate coverage, it abdicates its role as a pillar of democracy.
How can the press do a better job? Here are some basic suggestions:
First, journalists must understand how propaganda works on the brain and grasp the cognitive science that marketers of propaganda have implicitly mastered: frames, metaphors, narratives and brain basics.
Second, keep a steely focus on the fact that American democracy is under attack by a foreign power, possibly with collusion from the sitting presidentâ€™s campaign. This is a crisis. Certain rules donâ€™t apply in a crisis, especially the rule that the press must amplify the presidentâ€™s words, whatever they are.
Third, stop letting Trump control the news cycle. Newsgathering should be a serious affair controlled by editors whose power rivals any politicianâ€™s. Stop chasing his tweets and elevating every sideshow. Start every story with truth and the context of whatâ€™s really important to citizens in a democracy. More BBC, less TMZ.
Fourth, donâ€™t spread lies. Donâ€™t privilege Trumpâ€™s lies by putting their specific language in the headlines, the leads or the hashtags. Donâ€™t repeat the lies assuming people will automatically know theyâ€™re lies. People need to know the president is lying, but be careful about repeating the lies because â€œa lie repeated often enough becomes the truthâ€. Repetition of lies spreads them.
The job of the free press is to seek the truth and report the truth, especially the morally important truths and their consequences. If the press fails to do this job, not only does it lose its freedom, but we all do. (https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/jun/13/how-to-report-trump-media-manipulation-language (Links to an external site.))
McKay Coppins, The Billion-Dollar Disinformation Campaign to Reelect the President: How new technologies and techniques pioneered by dictators will shape the 2020 election.
After the 2016 election, much was made of the threats posed to American democracy by foreign disinformation. Stories of Russian troll farms and Macedonian fake-news mills loomed in the national imagination. But while these shadowy outside forces preoccupied politicians and journalists, Trump and his domestic allies were beginning to adopt the same tactics of information warfare that have kept the worldâ€™s demagogues and strongmen in power.
Every presidential campaign sees its share of spin and misdirection, but this yearâ€™s contest promises to be different. In conversations with political strategists and other experts, a dystopian picture of the general election comes into viewâ€”one shaped by coordinated bot attacks, Potemkin local-news sites, micro-targeted fearmongering, and anonymous mass texting. Both parties will have these tools at their disposal. But in the hands of a president who lies constantly, who traffics in conspiracy theories, and who readily manipulates the levers of government for his own gain, their potential to wreak havoc is enormous…
In the United States, we tend to view such tools of oppression as the faraway problems of more fragile democracies. But the people working to reelect Trump understand the power of these tactics. They may use gentler terminologyâ€”muddy the waters; alternative factsâ€”but theyâ€™re building a machine designed to exploit their own sprawling disinformation architecture.
Central to that effort is the campaignâ€™s use of micro-targetingâ€”the process of slicing up the electorate into distinct niches and then appealing to them with precisely tailored digital messages. The advantages of this approach are obvious: An ad that calls for defunding Planned Parenthood might get a mixed response from a large national audience, but serve it directly via Facebook to 800 Roman Catholic women in Dubuque, Iowa, and its reception will be much more positive. If candidates once had to shout their campaign promises from a soapbox, micro-targeting allows them to sidle up to millions of voters and whisper personalized messages in their ear.
Parscale didnâ€™t invent this practiceâ€”Barack Obamaâ€™s campaign famously used it in 2012, and Clintonâ€™s followed suit. But Trumpâ€™s effort in 2016 was unprecedented, in both its scale and its brazenness. In the final days of the 2016 race, for example, Trumpâ€™s team tried to suppress turnout among black voters in Florida by slipping ads into their News Feeds that read, â€œHillary Thinks African-Americans Are Super Predators.â€ An unnamed campaign official boasted to Bloomberg Businessweek that it was one of â€œthree major voter suppression operations underway (Links to an external site.).â€ (The other two targeted young women and white liberals.)
The weaponization of micro-targeting was pioneered in large part by the data scientists at Cambridge Analytica. The firm began as part of a nonpartisan military contractor that used digital psyops to target terrorist groups and drug cartels. In Pakistan, it worked to thwart jihadist recruitment efforts; in South America, it circulated disinformation to turn drug dealers against their bosses.
The emphasis shifted once the conservative billionaire Robert Mercer became a major investor and installed Steve Bannon as his point man. Using a massive trove of data it had gathered from Facebook and other sourcesâ€”without usersâ€™ consentâ€”Cambridge Analytica worked to develop detailed â€œpsychographic profilesâ€ (Links to an external site.) for every voter in the U.S., and began experimenting with ways to stoke paranoia and bigotry by exploiting certain personality traits.
… Itâ€™s a lesson drawn from demagogues around the world: When the press as an institution is weakened, fact-based journalism becomes just one more drop in the daily deluge of contentâ€”no more or less credible than partisan propaganda. Relativism is the real goal of Trumpâ€™s assault on the press, and the more â€œenemies of the peopleâ€ his allies can take out along the way, the better. â€œA culture war is a war (Links to an external site.),â€ Steve Bannon told the Times last year. â€œThere are casualties in war.â€
… Of course, dirty tricks arenâ€™t new to American politics. From Lee Atwater and Roger Stone to the crooked machine Democrats of Chicago, the country has a long history of underhanded operatives smearing opponents and meddling in elections…
Once you internalize the possibility that youâ€™re being manipulated by some hidden hand, nothing can be trusted. Every dissenting voice on Twitter becomes a Russian bot, every uncomfortable headline a false flag, every political development part of an ever-deepening conspiracy. By the time the information ecosystem collapses under the weight of all this cynicism, youâ€™re too vigilant to notice that the disinformationists have won…
The political theorist Hannah Arendt once wrote that the most successful totalitarian leaders of the 20th century instilled in their followers â€œa mixture of gullibility and cynicism.â€ When they were lied to, they chose to believe it. When a lie was debunked, they claimed theyâ€™d known all alongâ€”and would then â€œadmire the leaders for their superior tactical cleverness.â€ Over time, Arendt wrote, the onslaught of propaganda conditioned people to â€œbelieve everything and nothing, think that everything was possible and that nothing was true.â€ (https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2020/03/the-2020-disinformation-war/605530/) (
here are the lecture notes