Virtual Art Museum – Artwork, project help

For my final project, you will need to complete a virtual art museum visit
and thoroughly discuss two to four works. Please pay close attention to
the following assignment criteria.

Go to this “gallery” website for referencing your Final Project: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/

The site is broken down by dates.
Cruise the dates and artworks located in those eras of art influence and
address the following final project guidelines:

  1. Be no less than three pages, but no more than four pages in length.
  2. Compare and contrast a minimum of two artworks (no more than four) in which you will relate specific terminology and facts from glossary readings.
  3. Discuss
    the relevance and/or influence of each work to history/ art history
    (via historical context, i.e What was going on in the world at that time
    that influenced the works and/or vise, versa?).
  4. Include a minimum of three resources per work of art from the book and/or internet to support your claims.
  5. Include a citation for each source used.
  6. Incorporate correct art history vocabulary in your examination.

Here is some glossary terms that some must be used:

  • Abstract Expressionism
    • Also known as
      the New York School. The first major American avant-garde movement,
      Abstract Expressionism emerged in New York City in the 1940s. The
      artists produced abstract paintings that expressed their state of mind
      and that they hoped would strike emotional chords in viewers. The
      movement developed along two lines: gestural abstraction and chromatic
      abstraction.
  • Action painting
    • Also
      called gestural abstraction. The kind of Abstract Expressionism
      practiced by Jackson Pollock, in which the emphasis was on the creation
      process, the artist’s gesture in making art. Pollock poured liquid paint
      in linear webs on his canvases, which he laid out on the floor, thereby
      physically surrounding himself in the painting during its creation.
  • Assemblage
    • An artwork constructed from already existing objects.
  • Chromatic abstraction
    • A
      kind of Abstract Expressionism that focused on the emotional resonance
      of color, as exemplified by the work of Barnett Newman and Mark Rothko.
  • Color field painting
    • A
      variant of Post-Painterly Abstraction in which artists sought to reduce
      painting to its physical essence by pouring diluted paint onto unprimed
      canvas, allowing these pigments to soak into the fabric, as exemplified
      by the work of Helen Frankenthaler and Morris Louis.
  • Conceptual art
    • An
      American avant-garde art movement of the 1960s that asserted that the
      “artfulness” of art lay in the artist’s idea rather than its final
      expression.
  • Deconstruction
    • An
      analytical strategy developed in the late 20th century according to
      which all cultural “constructs” (art, architecture, and literature) are
      “texts.” People can read these texts in a variety of ways, but they
      cannot arrive at fixed or uniform meanings. Any interpretation can be
      valid, and readings differ from time to time, place to place, and person
      to person. For those employing this approach, deconstruction means
      destabilizing established meanings and interpretations while encouraging
      subjectivity and individual differences.
  • Earthworks
    • An
      American art form that emerged in the 1960s. Often using the land
      itself as their material, Environmental artists construct monuments of
      great scale and minimal form. Permanent or impermanent, these works
      transform some section of the environment, calling attention both to the
      land itself and to the hand of the artist. Sometimes referred to as
      earthworks.
  • Environmental art
    • An
      American art form that emerged in the 1960s. Often using the land
      itself as their material, Environmental artists construct monuments of
      great scale and minimal form. Permanent or impermanent, these works
      transform some section of the environment, calling attention both to the
      land itself and to the hand of the artist. Sometimes referred to as
      earthworks.
  • Gestural abstraction
    • Also
      known as action painting. A kind of abstract painting in which the
      gesture, or act of painting, is seen as the subject of art. Its most
      renowned proponent was Jackson Pollock. See also Abstract Expressionism.
  • Hard-edge painting
    • A
      variant of Post-Painterly Abstraction that rigidly excluded all
      reference to gesture, and incorporated smooth knife-edge geometric forms
      to express the notion that painting should be reduced to its visual
      components.
  • Impasto
    • A layer of thickly applied pigment.
  • Installation
    • An artwork that creates an artistic environment in a room or gallery.
  • Minimalism
    • A
      predominantly sculptural American trend of the 1960s characterized by
      works featuring a severe reduction of form, often to single, homogeneous
      units.
  • Neo-Expressionism
    • An
      art movement that emerged in the 1970s and that reflects the artists’
      interest in the expressive capability of art, seen earlier in German
      Expressionism and Abstract Expressionism.
  • Performance art
    • An
      American avant-garde art trend of the 1960s that made time an integral
      element of art. It produced works in which movements, gestures, and
      sounds of persons communicating with an audience replace physical
      objects. Documentary photographs are generally the only evidence
      remaining after these events. See also Happenings.
  • Photorealism
    • A
      school of painting and sculpture of the 1960s and 1970s that emphasized
      producing artworks based on scrupulous fidelity to optical fact. The
      Superrealist painters were also called Photorealists because many used
      photographs as sources for their imagery.
  • Photorealism
    • See Superrealism.
  • Pixels
    • Shortened form of “picture elements.” The tiny boxes that make up digital images displayed on a computer monitor.
  • Pop art
    • A
      term coined by British art critic Lawrence Alloway to refer to art,
      first appearing in the 1950s, that incorporated elements from consumer
      culture, the mass media, and popular culture, such as images from motion
      pictures and advertising.
  • Post-Painterly Abstraction
    • An
      American art movement that emerged in the 1960s and was characterized
      by a cool, detached rationality emphasizing tighter pictorial control.
      See also color field painting and hard-edge painting.
  • Postmodernism
    • A
      reaction against modernist formalism, seen as elitist. Far more
      encompassing and accepting than the more rigid confines of modernist
      practice, postmodernism offers something for everyone by accommodating a
      wide range of styles, subjects, and formats, from traditional easel
      painting to installation and from abstraction to illusionistic scenes.
      Postmodern art often includes irony or reveals a self-conscious
      awareness on the part of the artist of the processes of art making or
      the workings of the art world.
  • Site-specific art
    • Art created for a specific location. See also Environmental art.
  • Superrealism
    • A
      school of painting and sculpture of the 1960s and 1970s that emphasized
      producing artworks based on scrupulous fidelity to optical fact. The
      Superrealist painters were also called Photorealists because many used
      photographs as sources for their imagery.
  • Art Nouveau
    • French, “new art.”
      A late-19th- and early-20th-century art movement whose proponents tried
      to synthesize all the arts in an effort to create art based on natural
      forms that could be mass produced by technologies of the industrial age.
      The movement had other names in other countries: Jugendstil in Austria
      and Germany, Modernism in Spain, and Floreale in Italy.

  • Color
    • The
      value or tonality of a color is the degree of its lightness or
      darkness. The intensity or saturation of a color is its purity, its
      brightness or dullness. See also primary, secondary, and complementary
      colors.

  • Complementary colors
    • Those
      pairs of colors, such as red and green that together embrace the entire
      spectrum. The complement of one of the three primary colors is a
      mixture of the other two.

  • Divisionism
    • A
      system of painting devised by the 19th-century French painter Georges
      Seurat. The artist separates color into its component parts and then
      applies the component colors to the canvas in tiny dots (points). The
      image becomes comprehensible only from a distance, when the viewer’s
      eyes optically blend the pigment dots. Sometimes referred to as
      divisionism.

  • Impressionism
    • A
      late-19th-century art movement that sought to capture a fleeting
      moment, thereby conveying the illusiveness and impermanence of images
      and conditions.

  • Japonisme
    • The French fascination with all things Japanese. Japonisme emerged in the second half of the 19th century.

  • Modernism
    • A
      movement in Western art that developed in the second half of the 19th
      century and sought to capture the images and sensibilities of the age.
      Modernist art goes beyond simply dealing with the present and involves
      the artist’s critical examination of the premises of art itself.

  • Optical mixture
    • The visual effect of juxtaposed complementary colors.

  • Plein air
    • An
      approach to painting much popular among the Impressionists, in which an
      artist sketches outdoors to achieve a quick impression of light, air,
      and color. The artist then takes the sketches to the studio for
      reworking into more finished works of art.

  • Pointillism
    • A
      system of painting devised by the 19th-century French painter Georges
      Seurat. The artist separates color into its component parts and then
      applies the component colors to the canvas in tiny dots (points). The
      image becomes comprehensible only from a distance, when the viewer’s
      eyes optically blend the pigment dots. Sometimes referred to as
      divisionism.

  • Post-Impressionism
    • The
      term used to describe the stylistically heterogeneous work of the group
      of late-19th-century painters in France, including van Gogh, Gauguin,
      Seurat, and Cézanne, who more systematically examined the properties and
      expressive qualities of line, pattern, form, and color than the
      Impressionists did.

  • Primary colors
    • Red, yellow, and blue the colors from which all other colors may be derived.

  • Simultaneous contrasts
    • The
      phenomenon that juxtaposed colors affect the eye’s reception of each,
      as when a painter places dark green next to light green, making the
      former appear even darker and the latter even lighter. See also
      successive contrasts.

  • Successive contrasts
    • The
      phenomenon of colored afterimages. When a person looks intently at a
      color (green, for example) and then shifts to a white area, the fatigued
      eye momentarily perceives the complementary color (red). See also
      simultaneous contrasts.

  • Symbolism
    • A
      late-19th-century movement based on the idea that the artist was not an
      imitator of nature but a creator who transformed the facts of nature
      into a symbol of the inner experience of that fact.

  • Value
    • The
      value or tonality of a color is the degree of its lightness or
      darkness. The intensity or saturation of a color is its purity, its
      brightness or dullness. See also primary, secondary, and complementary
      colors.

  • Additive light
    • Natural light, or sunlight, the sum of all the wavelengths of the visible spectrum. See also subtractive light.
  • Additive sculpture
    • A kind of sculpture technique in which materials (for example, clay) are built up or “added” to create form.
  • Attribute (n.)
    • The
      distinctive identifying aspect of a person, for example, an object
      held, an associated animal, or a mark on the body. (v.) To make an
      attribution.
  • Carving
    • A
      technique of sculpture in which the artist cuts away material (for
      example, from a stone block) in order to create a statue or a relief.
  • Casting
    • A technique of sculpture in which the artist places a fluid substance, such as bronze or plaster in a mold.
  • Chronology
    • In art history, the dating of art objects and buildings.
  • Collage
    • A
      composition made by combining on a flat surface various materials, such
      as newspaper, wallpaper, printed text and illustrations, photographs,
      and cloth.
  • Color
    • The
      value or tonality of a color is the degree of its lightness or darkness.
      The intensity or saturation of a color is its purity, its brightness or
      dullness. See also primary, econdary, and complementary colors.
  • Composition
    • The
      way in which an artist organizes forms in an artwork, either by placing
      shapes on a flat surface or arranging forms in space.
  • Evidence
    • In
      art history, the examination of written sources in order to determine
      the date of an artwork, the circumstances of its creation, or the
      identity of the artist(s) who made it.
  • Foreshortening
    • The
      use of perspective to represent in art the apparent visual contraction
      of an object that extends back in space at an angle to the perpendicular
      plane of sight.
  • Form
    • In
      art, an object’s shape and structure, either in two dimensions (for
      example, a figure painted on a surface) or in three dimensions (such as a
      statue).
  • Formal analysis
    • The visual anaylsis of artistic form.
  • Genre
    • A style or category of art; also, a kind of painting that realistically depicts scenes from everyday life.
  • Hierarchy of scale
    • An artistic convention in which greater size indicates greater importance.
  • Iconography
    • Greek,
      the “writing of images.” The term refers both to the content, or
      subject, of an artwork and to the study of content in art. It also
      includes the study of the symbolic, often religious, meaning of objects,
      persons, or events depicted in works of art.
  • Illusionism (adj. illusionistic)
    • The
      representation of the three-dimensional world on a two-dimensional
      surface in a manner that creates the illusion that the person, object,
      or place represented is three-dimensional. See also perspective.
  • Intensity
    • The
      value or tonality of a color is the degree of its lightness or
      darkness. The intensity or saturation of a color is its purity, its
      brightness or dullness. See also primary, secondary, and complementary
      colors.
  • Landscape
    • A picture showing natural scenery, without narrative content.
  • Line
    • The extension of a point along a path, made concrete in art by drawing on or chiseling into a plane.
  • Medium (pl. media)
    • The
      material (for example, marble, bronze, clay, fresco) in which an artist
      works; also, in painting, the vehicle (usually liquid) that carries the
      pigment.
  • Mural
    • A wall painting.
  • Period style
    • A
      distinctive artistic manner. Period style is the characteristic style
      of a specific time. Regional style is the style of a particular
      geographical area. Personal style is an individual artist’s unique
      manner.
  • Personal style
    • A
      distinctive artistic manner. Period style is the characteristic style
      of a specific time. Regional style is the style of a particular
      geographical area. Personal style is an individual artist’s unique
      manner.
  • Perspective
    • A
      method of presenting an illusion of the three-dimensional world on a
      two-dimensional surface. In linear perspective, the most common type,
      all parallel lines or surface edges converge on one, two, or three
      vanishing points located with reference to the eye level of the viewer
      (the horizon line of the picture), and associated objects are rendered
      smaller the farther from the viewer they are intended to seem.
      Atmospheric, or aerial, perspective creates the illusion of distance by
      the greater diminution of color intensity, the shift in color toward an
      almost neutral blue, and the blurring of contours as the intended
      distance between eye and object increases.
  • Physical evidence
    • In art history, the examination of the materials used to produce an artwork in order to determine its date.
  • Proportion
    • The relationship in size of the parts of persons, buildings, or objects, often based on a module.
  • Regional style
    • A
      distinctive artistic manner. Period style is the characteristic style
      of a specific time. Regional style is the style of a particular
      geographical area. Personal style is an individual artist’s unique
      manner.
  • School
    • A chronological and stylistic classification of works of art with a stipulation of place.
  • Space
    • In
      art history, both the actual area which an object occupies or a
      building encloses, and the illusionistic representation of space in
      painting and sculpture.
  • Spectrum
    • The range or band of visible colors in natural light.
  • Statue
    • A three-dimensional sculpture.
  • Still life
    • A picture depicting an arrangement of objects.
  • Style
    • A
      distinctive artistic manner. Period style is the characteristic style
      of a specific time. Regional style is the style of a particular
      geographical area. Personal style is an individual artist’s unique
      manner.
  • Stylistic evidence
    • In art history, the examination of the style of an artwork in order to determine its date or the identity of the artist.
  • Symbol
    • An image that stands for another image or encapsulates an idea.
  • Technique
    • The
      processes that artists employ to create form, as well as the
      distinctive, personal ways in which they handle their materials and
      tools.
  • Texture
    • The quality of a surface, such as rough or shiny.
  • Tonality
    • The
      value or tonality of a color is the degree of its lightness or
      darkness. The intensity or saturation of a color is its purity, its
      brightness or dullness. See also primary, secondary, and complementary
      colors.
  • Tone
    • The lightness or darkness of a color.
  • Value
    • The
      value or tonality of a color is the degree of its lightness or
      darkness. The intensity or saturation of a color is its purity, its
      brightness or dullness. See also primary, secondary, and complementary
      colors.
  • Volume
    • The space that mass organizes, divides, or encloses.
  • Weld
    • To join metal parts by heating, as in assembling the separate parts of a statue made by casting.