The criminal justice system provides very long, lifetime, or death sentence to those convicted of murder. Are these harsh and punishments appropriate for the crime of murder?

Using a minimum of 4 recent scholarly peered reviewed article less than 5yrs must be cited using APA format 750 words for the following.   It should be written separately include the http or DOI for all references used please:

Question:

The criminal justice system provides very long, lifetime, or death sentence to those convicted of murder. Are these harsh and punishments appropriate for the crime of murder? Are there alternative punishments for murders that do not include long incarceration periods or death? Use scholarly resources to support your explanations.